語言學習

10/07/2020 Learning English, Unit 78

怎樣用 -s’ (e.g. the girl’s name) &

怎樣用 of … (e.g. the name of the book)

 

(A)  我們通常用 –’s 於人或動物表示後者對前者的關係 (Karen’s …/ the horse’s…, 等等):

Karen’s eyes,   the manager’s office,   the horse’s tail…,   Mr. Evan’s daughter.

  • Where is the manager’s office (而不寫 the office of the manager)
  • What colour are Karen’s eyes? (而不寫the eyes of Karen)
  • What is Karen’s brother’s name?
  • 注意你可以用 -’s而後面沒有名詞:
  • This isn’t my book. It’s my brother’s 是我弟兄的

 

在以下的句子我們會用 of …  ,因不能用 -s 於人物後面

  • What is the name of the man who lent us the money (借錢給我們的那個男人名字是什麼)? 因為 “the man who lent us the money” 太長了,又不可以加上一個 -s 在最後一個字money之尾)。 [如果你這樣寫又不對What is the man’s name who lent us the money 因為 “who lent us the money” 不是用來形容name 這個字,乃是形容man ].

 

  • 注意我們會這樣寫: a woman’s hat (意即a hat for a woman)
  • a boy’s name (意即 a name for a boy),
  • a bird’s egg (意即 an egg laid生 by a bird), etc.

(B) 於things(物件),ideas(意念)等,我們通常會用 of (…of the book / of the café, etc, ):

     The door of the garage (而不是the garage’s door),  the name of the book,   the owner (主人) of the café

 

有時你可以用前一課教的 noun (adj) + noun, 例如 the garage door,   the cafe owner.

 

我們一般用 “of ” 於以下的字後頭: the beginning / the end / the top / the bottom / the front, etc: eg the beginning of the month,  the back of the car (不是the car back)

 

C於一個organisation(機構)來說,你可以用 ‘s 或 ”of“,機構就是指一群人。所以你可以說:

  • the government’s decision政府決定 或 the decision of the government
  • the company’s success 公司的成功 或 the success of the company
  •  

至於一些地方來說,可以用 -s ,我們可以說:

e.g.     the city’s new theatre (劇院), the world’s population, Brazil’s largest city.

(D) 在一個單數之後我們用 ’s:

            My sister’s room (她的房間 – 一個姊妹)

   Mr. Carter’s house

在一個複數之後(如sister/friends, etc.)我們放那一瞥(’)在 s之後:

my sisters’ room (=their room – two or more sisters)

the Carters’ house (卡達先生太太)

假如一個複數名詞是沒有 -s, 如 (men/women/children/people),我們用 -s 在這複數字後 :

the men’s changing room, a children’s book (=適合小孩子們的書)

注意你可以用 -s 在多過一個名詞之後:

Jack and Jill’s wedding,   Mr. and Mrs. Carter’s house

(E) 你可以用 s 在時間詞語 (yesterday / next week, etc.)

  • Do you still have yesterday’s newspaper?
  • Next week’s meeting has been cancelled (取消).
  • today’s / tomorrow’s / this evening’s / Monday’s, etc.

 

我們也用-’s 於有一段時間性的複數字

  • I have a week’s vacation(假期)starting on Monday. 由星期一開始我有一個禮拜的假期。
  • Sally needs eight hours’ sleep a night. 她晚上需要八個小時的睡眠
  • Brenda got to work 15 minutes late but lost an hour’s pay. 奔迪遲了15分鐘上班,但卻失去一小時的工資。

 

 

3/7/2020 English Learning (No 77)Noun + Noun (a Tennis ball/ a headache, etc.)

 

  1. 我們很多時用兩個名詞一起 (名詞+名詞) 來指一件事物,人,概念, 等等。

例如 a tennis ball,  a bank manager,  a car accident, income tax,   the water temperature

前面的一個名詞就好像是一個形容詞, 它告訴我們有關第二個名詞是怎樣的,譬如:

a tennis ball = 用來玩網球的球

a car accident = 駕駛車時發生的意外

a Boston doctor = 波士頓來的醫生

the water temperature = 在某地方,如一個海洋,一個湖 等水的溫度

所以你可以說:

a television camera (有小電視機的照相機),a television programme (電視節目),a television actor (電視明星);

language problems (語言問題),marriage problems (婚姻問題),health problems (健康問題), work problems (工作問題) – 這一切全都是不同種類的問題。

 

比較一下以下的:

garden vegetables (=在花園里中的蔬菜)

vegetable garden (=種蔬菜的一個花園)

有時候第一個字(名詞)是 –ing作尾,通常這寫是用來表達在做一些事情,譬如:

a frying pan 炸鍋 (a pan for frying), a washing machine,  a swimming pool, a dining room 飯堂。

有時候有超過兩個名詞在前頭:

  • I waited at the hotel reception desk. 我在酒店接待處等待
  • We watched the world swimming Championships on television. 我們在電視上觀看了世界游泳錦標賽
  • Everyone is talking the government corruption scandal. 所有人都在談論政府腐敗醜聞

  1. 當名詞像以下的,有時我們用一個字,有時我們用兩個字,請看下面:

       a headache 一個頭疼,   toothpaste牙膏,  a weekend一個週末,  a swimming pool一個游泳池, 
       pea soup 豆湯

 

©  看看以下的分別:

  • a wineglass 酒杯 (但酒杯可能是空的), and a glass of wine (有酒在裡面的酒杯)
  • a toolbox 工具箱 (箱可能是空的),a box of tools (一個滿有工具的箱)

 

(D) 當我們用  名詞+名詞  時,第一個名詞就好像是形容詞。通常它是單數的,但他的意思往往
      是是有複數的,譬如: a bookstore 裡面你可以買很多書books又 如an apple tree一顆蘋
     果樹是有許多蘋果的, 同樣我們說:

a three-hour trip a three hours trip, two 14-year old girls (a ten-dollar bill (page dollars),a three- letter (pages)
a four-week English course (weeks)

  • It was a three-hour trip.  但  The trip took three hours.

歡迎網上學習,在這來臨的幾個月,因疫情的緣故,讓我們嘗試一下可否在網上學一學,不過你們真的要有恆心,因為這比課堂學習更要有自律呢!

23/3/2020   主動和被動語

我準備先和你們溫習一下以前學過的東西

主動語句 (Active voice sentence)句 和 被動語句 (Passive voice sentence) :

 明白英文句子裡,什麼是主動語(Active voice), 什麼是被動語 (Passive voice) 很重要,因為你明白了就明白句子的結構以致解釋不會弄錯。

什麼是主動語態句子: e.g. I eat an apple. 在這裡,主詞(人物) “ I",動詞是 ”eat 即 吃“, 受詞是(物件) ”an apple“。

什麼是被動語態句子: e.g. An apple is bought by me. 一個蘋果被我買了。這裡 An apple "彷彿"是變了做主,因它被放在最前頭,跟著就是動詞 (注意:這個動詞有些不同: “is bought” - 就是有個 vtb (verb-to-be) 放在動詞前面,而這個動詞是過去分詞 (1 buy, 2 ate,3 eaten  ),就是我們在講義裡叫他做第三棟的那個 Past participle., 然後就是被放在最後的主詞。

 

記住,一個句子是被動式,一定有個 Verb-to-be (vtb) + 過去分詞 (Past Participle)  e.g. am beaten (by 某某人), was beaten, were beaten, have been beaten, has been beaten, had been beaten, shall be beaten, will be beaten. 

記得嗎? Verb-to-be (vtb) 也可以簡稱做 "be" 包括:am, is, are, was, were, have been, has been, had been, shall be, should be, will be,  would be. 等。

-

懂得怎樣把主動語變為被動語,或被動語轉為主動語是很重要的,因為很多時你不明白就不明白句子的意思。

現在讓我們看轉換的時候有什麼要注意的,我會給很多例子,要你看清楚:

 

1) 主詞的變化,即由主動變成被動時

THEY 變成 THEM,                    HE變成 HIM,                       SHE變成 HER            但是 YOU  和    IT   就都不需要轉。

e.g. (A) They catch a mouse. (主動語),轉為被動語時, 要把 THEY 轉為 them 

把它轉成被動語:A mouse is caught by them.

 

2)   vtb 在被動語時的變化: 首先你要知道的是: 在現在式, 主詞若是第三身單數,則他的動作(動詞)是要加 “是” 的。

e.g.   He eats an apple. 現在把上面的主動與句轉為被動語句: An apple is eaten by him.

如果 apple 是眾數,則 vtb 要用 are : Apples are eaten by him.

如果是過去式的主動語句: He ate an apple。 則轉為被動語句就這樣寫 An apple was eaten by Him.

又如果又是過去式,蘋果又是眾數, 被動語就是變成這樣: Apples were eaten by him.

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英國的報紙很多時在報導一件事的時候是用被動語態,但沒有說是誰做或誰說的 : It was reported  (i.e. 被動式 passive form)  many people stole visitors’ handbags. 直譯就是: 有被報導聲稱很多人偷遊客的錢包 ,這樣說法的好處是不用說明是誰說的,因無關重要。

其他同樣你常見的 譬如: It was said that........              It was suggested that........            It was claimed that.........

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31/3/2020   現在完成式的主動和被動語

好了,現在讓我們看看現在完成式,用於主動語和被動語態的轉換

請看以下的主動語轉為被動語:記得呀,被動語是要有 vtb + 動詞的過去分詞 (Past participle) + by + 誰做的。

A) I have drawn (現在完成式)a picture.  A picture has been (現在完成式的vtb) drawn by me.

B) I have drawn two pictures. Two pictures have been drawn by me.

上面的 A B 由主動變成被動, 看看不同的地方是什麼?就是那兩條畫線 vtb 的不同,has been 前面是一幅畫(單數), have been  前的是兩幅畫(複數)。明白了嗎?

顯示完 Present participle 後,現在給你們看看用 Past participle (過去完成式)在主動語和被動語中寫法的不同:

e.g. I had drawn (過去完成式)two pictures. --- Two pictures had been (過去完成式的(vtb) drawn by me.
e.g. He had drawn a picture. --- A picture had been (vtb) drawn by him.
e.g. They had drawn many pictures. --- Many pictures had been (vtb) drawn by them.

你們還記得嗎,一般來說,我們不用“Past participle過去完成式”的,除非要表達兩個已過去的動作,發生在前的才用Past participle (發生在後的用簡單的過去式就可以了。
就算發生了好久的事情,都只需要用簡單的過去式便可:譬如:

I caught an eagle (鷹) last year. 但是假如你想說你還沒瘸腿前捕捉了一頭鷹。 你就要用 這樣說:I had broken my leg before I caught an eagle last year.

 

那麼,現在再加上將來式的“主動語” 和 “被動語” 的互相轉換。
主動語句:
e.g.

I shall feed the dog. --- the dog will be fed by me.
He will feed the dog.--- The dog will be fed by him.
They will feed me. --- I shall be fed by them (
注意:“I”在被動語中,要用”shall be”再加上動詞的過去分詞 (Past participle) vtb

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06/4/2020  “Whose” 的用法 (週開始日期)

How to use the word "WHOSE"

Whose is what we call a relative pronounn, just as WHO is also a relative pronoun. 即是關係代名詞,

我先用 WHO來解釋一下什麼叫關係代名詞,你便會更加明白 WHOSE 作為另外一種關係代名詞

先看看這兩個句子:  She is the girl。 This girl always feeds the dog. 這就是那個女孩。 這女孩常常餵那隻狗。 如果我們想簡化一些,可以把兩句合成語句,那麼就要靠個 WHO 字,它把兩句聯合在一起,變成 She is the girl WHO always feeds the dog. 你看這個 WHO 字 -  它是一個代名詞,即代表那個 GIRL, 這樣一來,就不用兩句了。換句話說,WHO與 GIRL 扯上關係,即是代表那 GIRL, 故此我們叫 WHO 做關係代名詞。

雖然前些時我在你們手機略略解釋過,但現在我要不厭其煩的再解釋一次!

那麼 WHOSE (解釋為 ”誰的“)又怎樣呢?WHOSE 都是關係代名詞,但更有多一個含義,就是“屬於 possessive”(誰)的含義”。 看看這句: 這本書屬於誰的?Whose (屬於誰)book is this (這本書系)? 中文成句是: 這本書屬於誰的。

再多幾句例子吧: Whose pens are these?  Whose wallet is the one on the floor? Whose lugguage is this with a name Jenny Lincoln?  Whose responsibiulity is the shipment charges?  Whose works are being displayed in the exhibition? 

OK 那麼我們現在再把一種 WHOSE 的用法介紹介紹, 這次不是在問話句子。

請先看這兩句句子: He is the man. The man's legs were broken. 我們可以把這兩句合而為一, 即 He is the man whose  (他的)legs were broken. 他就是那個男人其腳系瘸了。

其他例子:Sarah 撒拉, 『whose dog is  very cute 其狗系很有趣』, just arrived my home 剛到達我家

The dogs whose names aren't called, keep quiet . 没喊到名字的狗保持靜靜的。

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11/04/2010  English Learning (No. 66)   Countable and Uncountable nouns 

一个名词可以是能数的Countable或是不能数的Uncountable,能数的例如:I eat a banana everyday. I like bananas.  香蕉是一个可以数的名词。又如:There was an accident 有一宗交通意外.
 不能数的Uncountable:I ear rice everyday. I like rice.  饭是不能数的名词
More example of uncountable nouns: There is sand in my shoe.  有沙在我鞋子里。Ann was listening 听 to music 音乐.  或 We don't have enough water

你可以用 a / an  在 noun 的前面。eg A student,  An umbrella (  我们用"an"  如果后面的  noun  是 a, e, i, o, u.  响音)
复数的前面,不用加 "a" 或 “an", eg: I like bananas. eg  Accidents (  意外)can be prevented (防止).  我们用“some” 和 “any" 于复数,例如: We sang some songs.   Did you buy any apples?   
我们用  “many" 及 “few” 在一些能数的noun 名词 前,例如,We didn't take many photographs 我们没有拍很多照片。 I have a few jobs to do. 我有少许事要做。


你可以用“some” 及 “any" 在数不到的名词前,例如:We listen to some music.  Did you buy any apple juice.
 我们用 "much" 和 "little" 在一些不能数的名词前, 例如: We didn't do much shopping. I have a little work to do.

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18/04/2010  English Learning (No.67) -  Countable and Uncountable nouns 

Today let us look at the same subject, ie. Countable and Uncountable nouns (part 2).
 有很多nouns可以用作 countable or uncountable, 而通常有个不同的意思, 例如
COUNTALE:
eg. Did you hear a noise just now 你刚刚有没有听到一个声音?这里的意思是一個声音。 eg。I bought a newspaper to read 指买张报纸来看。
eg. There is a hair in my soup 有单单一条头发在我的汤内。
eg. We have a spare room 我们有一间空房。
eg. I had some interesting experiences while I was away 我外出时有过 一些有趣的经验, 即一些事情发生在我身上。
eg. Enjoy your holiday  去享受一些好时光吧。
eg. I would like a coffee 指想要一杯咖啡。


UNCOUNTABLE:
eg. There is too much noice (数不到的不用 many).
eg. I need some paper to write on  需要些物质(任何纸)来在上写。eg. You have got very long hair  (not hairs)。 eg. You can't sit here. There isn't any room. 指空位。eg. They gave me the job because I had a lot of experience (not experiences 因指经验)eg. I don't have time ( 指无时间不是次数)。eg. I like coffee  指我一般来说喜欢咖啡。
以上的例子请留意用名词的不同解释。


有些名词通常在英语裡是不能数的(其他语言可能可以)例如:
advice 忠告, bread 面包, furniture 家私, luggage 行李,progress 进步, weather 天气,baggage 手提行李, chao 乱七八糟, information 资讯, news 新闻,scenery 景色 , work 工作 , behaviour 行为, damage 伤害, luck 幸运, permission 准许,traffic 交通。


这些名词通常也是不能数的:
1)你不可以用"a/an", 例如我们不说:a bread  或 “an advice"
2) 他们通常不是复数, 我们不说 "breads", 或 “advices"。我们会说
eg. I am going to buy some bread, or a loaf 一长团 of bread, 但不是 a bread.
eg. Enjoy your holiday. I hope you have good weather 非 a good weather.
eg. Where are you going to put all your furniture, 而 非 furnitures.

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25/04/2010  English Learning (No.68) - More on Countable and Uncountable nouns 

同學們, 今天我們還是環繞 數得的 名詞,前面的冠詞(即 a, an, the, 等是怎樣用的)

同学们,今天我们还是温习 COUNTABLE 数得的 nouns with "a/an"  和  "some"。
Countable  的名词可以是 singular (单数)或 plural (复数):  a dog, dogs; a child, some children; the evening, the evenings; this party, these parties; an umbrella, two umbrellas.

 

在singular 单数 countable nouns  前面,你可以用 a/an:
eg Goodbye! Have a nice evening.
eg Do you need an umbrella.
你不可以只是用 singular(单数)数得到 countable 的名词而没有 (a/the/my 等等:
eg She never wears a hat ( 戴帽子)。
而不能能写   She never wears hat.-  错的。
eg Be careful of the dog. 不要写 Be careful of dogs - 错的, 因为不是凡是狗都要怕,(某人家的才怕)。
eg I have got a headache. (I have got headache. - 错的)。
同学们,Please if you can read aloud ( 请如果能够大声读)the above many times 上面的句子多次 you will get it right in future 習慣了就說出來都會對.


我们用 a/an  来描述事物和人物是怎么样的事和怎样的人:
eg A dog is an animal.  一只狗是一只动物.
eg I am an optimist  乐观一个者。
eg Tim's father is a doctor. 
eg Are you a good driver?
eg Mary is really a nice person.
eg What a pretty dress.  那是多么美丽的裙子。
我们说某人有个长鼻子/一副好面貌/一个强壮的心 Jack has a long nose/a nice face/a strong heart.

以下的句子名词是复数, 不要加上(some 一些):
eg Dogs are animals.
eg Most of my friends (大多数我的朋友)are students.
eg Jill's parents父母 are really nice people.
eg Jack has blue eyes.


 当你说某人的工作时记住用  a/an (一位)
eg Sandra is a nurse.
eg Would you like to be an English teacher?

我们可以用 “some” 于数得的复数名词, 有两种情形:
1)當 “some" 是描述一数目a number of/a few of 一少许/a pair of 一双
eg I've seen some good movies recently.  不要说: I've seen good movies recently.
eg Some friends of mine are coming 我的一些朋友回来。
eg I need some new sunglasses 黑眼镜.

如果你说到一些普遍性的事情,不要用 “some":
eg I love bananas. 
eg My aunt  阿姨 is a writer. (不是某某作家, 只是一位作家)
eg She writes book. 她写书。(不要写some books)
有时候你可以有或没有 “some” 都可以的 (因它们为意思是相同)
eg There are (some) eggs in the fridge if you are hungry.

2) "Some" 就是 一些的意思。
eg Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children)
eg Some police officers in Britain carry guns, but most 大多数 don't 不会。

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07/05/2010  Englis Learning (No.69)  繼續  Countable and Uncountable nouns 
Hello students, today we are still learning about the use of:  a/an 不定冠詞 Definite article 和 the 定冠詞 indefinite article, 冠詞 就是 article.
請看看這兩句
1)    I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. 我說一塊sandwich(三文治)和 一個apple (蘋果) 因為這是我第一次提及這倆個食物。
2)    The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple was delicious. 我說 “the sandwich” and “the apple” 因為我知道是指特定的那一塊sandwich 和那一個apple, 是我吃過的。

 

比較 “a” 和 “the” 在以下的句子
eg A man and a woman were sitting in front of me. The man was American, but I think the woman was British. 後一句你用the因為你是指你剛才提過的那些人。
eg When we were on holiday 度假, we stayed 住在 at a hotel. Sometimes we had dinner at the hotel, and sometimes we went to a restaurant. 前一句用 “a” 因為是任一間酒店,後一句是你在那兒吃過飯的酒店(特定的),最後那句也不是特定的那一間餐館,只是說出外到任一間餐館。


故此,特定的事物,我們用 “the”
eg Tom sat down on a chair. (可能是房間任何一張椅子)
eg Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (是特定靠門的一張)
eg Ann is looking for a job 找工作. (非特定某工作)
eg Did Ann get the job she applied for 她申請過的工作她拿到嗎? (特定的那份)
eg Do you have a car 你有車嗎?(非特定那一輛車)
eg I washed the car yesterday. (可能是之我的車,故是特定的) 

我們用 “the”當我們清楚是什麼情況下所指的事物或人:
譬如,在一個房間裡我們談及那盞燈,那地板,那天花板,那門,那地毯,等等
eg Can you turn off the light, please 請可否關那燈。(這房的燈)
eg I took a taxi to the station. (那城的車站)
eg I’d like to speak to the manager, please. (這店的經理)
同樣的,我們說我們去那個銀行,那個郵局:
eg I have to go to the bank, and then I am going to the post office to get some stamps.

 

以下兩句是泛指的(即任何一間):
eg Is there a bank near here?
eg My sister is a doctor? (就是說她是一個醫生,不是其他的)

 

此外,再看以下的:
我們說:”once a week 每週一次” / three times a week 每週三次 / £2 a kilo 兩鎊一公斤
eg How often do you go to the movies 電影? “About once a month.”
eg How much are those potatoes?  “Three pounds a kilo.”
eg She works eight hours a day 一日八小時, six days a week. 一周六天。

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16/05/2020 English Learning (No. 70) 今天學冠詞 “The” 的用法,第一講

 我們用 “the” 在指某一(唯一的)件東西, 譬如:

  • What is the longest river in the world?  最長的那條河是哪條?
  • The earth goes around the sun, 地球環繞太陽and the moon goes around the earth 月亮環繞地球. Of France
  • I am going away at the end of this month. 月尾我將會離開。
  • Paris is the capital of France. 巴黎是法國的收首都。

但我們用 a/an 事物是哪一種的食物,看一下的不同:

  • The sun is a star. 太陽是一個恆星。(很多恆星中的一個)
  • The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel.

但是有些時候這個 “the” 的冠詞是不遵從什麼規矩,要靠死記英國人他們習慣有些字前面是用 “the” 的,我們就要靠死記咯!譬如:

他們說:the sky / the sea / the ocean / the ground / the country 鄉下/ the environment: 以上的字,要死記前面是要用 “the”的。

  • We looked up at all the stars in the sky. (不是 in sky
  • Would you like to live in the country 鄉下
  • We must do more to protect the environment. (保護環繞我們的自然世界)

要留意:我們說 Space 是沒有 “the” 就是宇宙的“空間不是“空位”的意思,因它有兩個解

  • There are millions 無數百萬 of stars in space. (不是 in the space)
  • 但是我們說: I tried to park my car, but the space was too small.

 

我們用“the” 在 same  (e the same. (非 are same)

 

以下幾個名詞都要死記要有 the 在前面:

我們說 (go to the movies去看電影, 看電影是習慣用複數的) / (go to the theatre 去看劇,雖然 theatre 是劇院之意)

  • I often go to the movies, but haven’t been to the theatre for ages。看劇,世紀指好久之意. 那麼跟著的一句為何不用 “the”eg  There isn’t a theatre in this town.
  •  I often listen to the radio. 要死記有 the在radio前,意思是用無線電的形式去聽。 但假如你買了一台收音機你則說:I bought a radio.
  • We heard the news (“新聞”之前也慣用the – 要死記)on the radio

但我們說 : Can you turn off the television, please? (關了那指定的那台電視機)W

I often watch television. 你明白跟以上一句有什麼分別呢?

We watched the news on television 在電視中. (不是特定那一台電視機,故不是“the television”

Breakfast      lunch       dinner      

我們通常不用 “the” 在一頓餐之前:

  • What did you have for breakfast?
  • We had lunch at a very nice restaurant.
  • What time is dinner?

但是假如有一個形容詞在它們前面,則用 “a” 才對。

We, had a very nice lunch. (不是 we had very nice lunch)

 

Room 126, Gate 閘口 10.

我們不用”the” noun + number. 譬如:

  • Our plan leaves from Gate 10 (非 the Gate 10)
  • Do you have shoes in size 11(非 the size 11)
  • Room 26 (in a hotel),
  • Page 29 (of a book),
  • Section A 第A節, 等等

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22/05/2020 - English Learning (No.71) -  冠詞的應用 “The第二講  

- (school / the school

比較一下用 school 與 用 the school 的不同

小孩 Claudia is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She is at school now. School begins at 9:00 am and finishes at 3: pm.

當我們說一個孩子上學或在學校 (作為一個學生), 我們不一定是指謀個學校。 我們只是說school作為一個普遍的概念。

再看以下另一個描述:

Today Claudia’s mother wants to speak to her daughter’s teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She is at the school now. Claudia’s mother is not a student. She is not “in school”, she doesn’t “go to school 上學.” But if she wants to see Claudia’s teacher, she goes to the school (= Claudia’s school, 就是那所特定的學校)

 

同樣地,我們用 prison 監獄, college, and church ,形式也相似, 當我們想用這些名詞作為一種普遍概念與及他們一般的用途,我們不用 the 述及這些地方。

比較以下兩組句子:

  1. Ken’s brother is in prison robbery 搶劫.  他只是一個監犯,我們不是在想謀一所監獄。
  2. When I finish secondary school, I want to go to college.
  3. Mrs. Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (= 去一個宗教崇拜)
  1. Ken went to the prison to visit his brother.
  2. Dan is a student at the college where I used to work 那裡我以前工作過的. (= 一所特定的 college)
  3. The workers went to the church to repair維修 the roof屋頂(這裡不是談及普通一個宗教崇拜,而是某某教堂).

 

看看這三個名詞:  bed     work     home

我們說 go to bed (不是指上床而是睡覺)

  • It’s time to go to bed now.
  • This morning I had breakfast in bed 意即不是在餐桌.
  • 但看看: I sat down on the bed. (指某一個家私,不是那椅子)

 

我們說 go to work / be at work / start work / finish work, 等等, 而不是 “the work”:

  • Ann didn’t go to work yesterday.
  • What time do you usually finish work?

 

我們也說 go home / come home / get home / be (at) home,

  • It’s late. Let’s go home.
  • Will you be (at) home tomorrow afternoon?

 

我們說 go to sea / be at sea (注意沒有 “the”, 因意思是去一個海程), 否則就要有“the

  • Keith is a sailor 水手。  He spends most of his time at sea.
  • 但看這句: I would like to live near the sea靠近海.
  • I can be dangerous 危險 to swim in the sea. 在海裡

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29/05/2020 English Learning (No.72): “The” 的用途 - 第三講

當我們普通說起事件或人物,我們不用 “the

  • I’m afraid of dogs. (不是 the dogs)
  • dogs 就是一般的狗,不是特定種類的狗只)
  • Doctors are paid (被付)more than teachers. 醫生薪酬多過教師
  • Do you collect stamps? 你集郵嗎
  • Crime is a problem in most big cities. 多數大城市罪惡是一個問題 (不是 The crime)
  • Life has changed a lot in the last 30 years. (不是 The life)
  • Do you like Chinese food/French cheese/Swiss chocolate?
  • My favourite 喜愛sport is football / skiing 溜冰/ running. (不是 the football/the skiing, etc.)
  • My favourite subject in school was history 歷史/ physics 物理/ English.

我們說 most people / most books / most cars, etc. (不是 the most)

  • Most people like George. (不是the most people)

 

我麼用 the 當指特別的事件和人物, 比較以下每對的句子:

  • Children learn a lot from playing. (一般的孩子來說)
  • We took the children to the zoo. (特定的一群)
  • I often listen to music.
  • The movie wasn’t good, but I like the music (電影中的音樂)
  • All cars have wheels 輪子。
  • All the cars in this parking lot (停車場) belong to people who work here.
  • Sugar isn’t very good for you.
  • Can you pass the sugar, please 請遞糖給我 (在桌上的糖)
  • Do Americans drink much tea? (一般的美國人)
  • Do the Americans you know drink tea? (只是你認識的美國人)

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6/6/2020 English Learning (No.73) - “the第四講

giraffe 長頸鹿 / the telephone / the piano鋼琴 etc.; + Adjective

  1. 讀以下的句子:
  • The giraffe is the tallest of all animals
  • The bicycle is an excellent means of transportation.
  • When was the telephone invented發明?
  • The dollar is the currency (=the money) of the United States.

在這些句子裡, the 不是指一個特定的東西 The giraffe 是一個特定動物的種類叫長頸鹿,不是特定的一隻長頸鹿 我們用 the + singular 單數,數得的名詞)的樣式來談及一個種類的動物,或機械,等等。

同樣我們用 the 於樂器

  • Can you play the guitar 吉他。
  • The piano is my favourite instrument 器材.

 你比較一下 a   :

  • I’d like to have a guitar.
  • We saw a giraffe at the zoo. 

 

(B) The + adjective (形容詞)

我們用 the + adjective (但沒有noun) 來講及有關一組人,尤其是:

the young 年輕人the old老人家,  the elderly 老人家,

the rich,  the poor,  the unemployed, the homeless 無家者,

the sick 病者, the disabled 殘疾者, the injured傷者’, the dead 死者

The young = young people, the rich=the rich people, etc.:

  • Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?
  • The homeless need more help from the government.

以上的寫法常用複數的意思。你不可以說:“a young”  或 “an unemployed.”

你一定要說 a young man / an unemployed woman, etc.

也注意我們說 the poor (而非 the poors) / the young (而非 the youngs), etc.

 

(C) The + nationality (國籍)

你可以用 the 於一些國籍的形容詞來指 “the people of that country 該國的人民”:

  • The French are famous for their food. (= the people of France)

同樣你可以說:

the Dutch 荷蘭人,the Spanish,   the British,   the English,   the Irish

 注意:the French / the English, etc., 已經是複數的意思。 我們不說 “ a French/ an English.” 而是說 a Frenchman / an Englishman, etc.

你也可以說 the + nationality 字末端用 – ese (the Chinese / the Vietnamese),  etc. e.g.

  • The Chinese invented printing. 中國人發明印刷
    這些字可以是單數的: (a Japanese / a Vietnamese)
    還有: the Swiss 瑞士人 / a Swiss (plural or singular 都可以)

 

還有其他的國籍, 它們的複數後面是加 “s” 譬如:

a Mexican – Mexicans,     an Italian – Italians,   a Thai – Thais
 

有些不明文的習慣,一些國籍我們通常不用 the來描寫他們的國籍。譬如很少用 the Mexican, the Italian”, 雖然用也不是錯的,而多是數用 Mexicans, Italians

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12/6/2020 English Learning (Unit 74) – Names名字,有或沒有用 “the” 在前的

  1. 在人的名字前我們不用 “the” (Ann, Ann Taylor, etc.). 同樣,我們通常不用 “the

於地方的名稱前,譬如:

Continents   -          Africa非洲 (不是 the Africa), Asia 亞洲,South America 南美

Countries 國家 and states 州 – France (不是 the France), Japan, Brazil 巴西, Texas 德州, islands – Bermuda百慕大島, Sicily 西西里島, Vancouver Island溫哥華島

Cities, towns, etc. – Cairo 開羅, New York 紐約, Bangkok 曼谷

Mountains – Everest 珠穆朗瑪峰, Kilimanjaro 乞力馬扎羅山, Fuji 富士山

但是我們用 “the” 於共和國, 王國,州 等

the Dominican Republic 多米尼加共和國, the United Kingdom (the UK)

the Czech Republic,   the United States of America (the USA)

比較一下:

  • We visited Canada and the United States.

 

  1. 當我們用 Mr./Mrs./Captain/Doctor, 等,我們不用 “the”, 我們說:
  2. Johnson/ Doctor Johnson/ Captain Johnson/ President Johnson, etc。 (而非 the Mr. Johnson … )

比較:We called the doctor (可能指家庭醫生而非醫院的醫生)而我們說 We called Doctor Johnson (而非the Doctor Johnson).

我們用 Mount Everest 珠穆朗瑪峰, Lake McKinley 默根尼湖,

  • They live near the lake. 而說: They live near Lake Superior (沒有”the”)

 

C) 我們用 “the” 於 ocean 海洋,sea 海,河及 canal 運河名字前面

            the Atlantic Ocean 大西洋,   the Amazon 亞馬孫河 (River)

    the Indian Ocean 印度洋,  the Red Sea 紅海,the English Channel 英倫海峽,
    the Caribbean Sea 加勒比海, the Suez Canal 蘇彝士運河     
    

 

  1. 我們用複數“s”於人名和地方名前,因為他們指複數:
  2. the Mitchells (=the Mitchell family 這個家庭),the Johnsons
  3. - the Netherlands (荷蘭以前由7個省連成), the Philippines, the United States

groups of islands the Canaries / the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the Hawaiian Islands.

mountain ranges 是山脈the Rocky Mountains 洛克山脈 / the Rockies, the Andes, the alps 阿爾卑斯山

 

  1. North / Northern, etc.
  2. the north (of Mexico 墨西哥)  但說 northen Mexico (沒有 the)

                 the southeast (of Canada)     但說 southeastern Canada

  • Sweden is in northern Europe; Spain is in the south.
  • the Middle East,      the Far East 遠東
  • north / south, etc. + 一個地名 (而沒有 the)

 North America 北美                    West Africa西非           southeast Texas東南德州

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19/6/2020 English Learning: (No.75) Names With and Without the (名字有和沒有用“the在前的問題)

  1. 首先, 沒有用 the :

大多數街道、廣場、公園等

Union Street 聯合街, Fifth Avenue 第五街, Central Park 中央公園,

Wilshire Boulevard 威世大道,Broadway 百老匯,Times Square 時代廣場。

有許多名字(特別重要的建築物和機構)只是單單兩個字: Kennedy Airport, Cambridge University (第一個字多數是人的名字如甘乃迪機場,劍橋大學)

我們也通常不用 “the” 於以下的名字,你要靠死記啊,朗讀多幾遍吧:(Epsom Station, Central Hall中央堂, Lincoln Centre林肯中心, Buckingham Palace白金漢宮。

但我們說 the White House (白宮-美總統的居所),還有 the Royal Palace. “White” 和 “royal” 不是與 “Kennedy” 和 “Cambridge” 等同一類的名字,不幸的是,也有例外。

 

  1. 其他大多數的名字 (如地方,建築物,等)是有“the”在前的. 如:

The Hilton Hotel 希爾頓酒店, the National Theatre 國家劇院, the Sahara Desert薩哈拉沙漠, the Atlantic Ocean大西洋, 等。

以下的地方通常是有 ”the”在前面:

hotels/restaurants - the Sheraton Hotel 喜來登酒店, the Bombay Restaurant, the Holiday Inn (hotel)

theatres / cinemathe Shubert Theatre, the Odeon

museums / galleries the War Museum大戰博物館, the National Gallery國家畫廊  

other buildings / bridges the Empire State Building, the Golden Gate Bridge金門橋, the White House 白宮

Oceans / seas / canalsthe Indian Ocean印度洋, the Mediterranean Sea地中海, the Suez Canal

還有:

newspaper – the Washington Post華盛頓時報, the Financial Times 財經時報

organizations the European Union歐盟, the Red Cross 紅十字會

有時候我們抽離了名詞,如:the Hilton (Hotel), the Sahara (Desert沙漠)

有些名字有 “of”, 通常會有”the”, 了例如:

the Bank of Montreal魁北克銀行, the Tower of London倫敦塔, the Museum of Modern Art摩登藝術博覽會, the Houses of Congress美國國會, the Great Wall of China長城, the Gulf of Mexico墨西哥灣, the University of Michigan 密西根大學

  1. 很多士多 stores,餐館,酒店,銀行等,它們的名字是跟它們的建立者

這寫名字後尾有個 “s” 或 “ s ”,我們不會用 ”the” 在前面:

Lloyds Bank (而不是the Lloyds Bank), McDonaldsMacy’s (百貨公司)

教會很多時候命名與聖人, 如:St. John’s Church (而不是 the St. John’s Church),   St. Patrick’s Cathedral

  1. 公司,航空公司等,多數是沒有 “the” 的
    • (而不是 the Fiat),  Sony,  Kodak,  United Airlines,  IBM

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26/06/2020 English Learning (No.76) – Singular and Plural

  1. Pants 褲子, (同樣像 pajamas 睡衣,glasses 眼鏡, binoculars 望遠鏡,scissors 剪刀,

以上的名詞全都是複數的,所以句子裡面有動詞或VTB 時,都是要用複數的,
e.g. My pants are too long. (而不是 is too long)

你可以用:a pair of + 这些名詞:

  • Those are nice jeans 牛仔褲. Or: That’s a nice pair of jeans. (而不是 a nice jeans)
  • I need some 一些new glasses. Or: I need a new pair of glasses 我要一副新眼鏡

 

  1. 有些名詞後尾是 “ics”, 但通常不是複數的,譬如:
  2. 經濟     electronics電子     gymnastics體操     mathematics數學            physics物理politics政治

e.g. Gymnastics is my favourite sport. 體操是我喜愛一個運動.

News 新聞is not plural

What time is the news on the television? (而不是 are the news)

  • ”s” 可以是單數或複數, 譬如:
  • 方法 a means of transportation 交通工具的方法,
    many means of transportation  交通工具多種的方法

series 連續劇 - a television series 一套電視連續劇,two television series …….

species 物種 - a species of bird 鳥類的一種, 200 species of birds二百種類的鳥

 

© 我們常常對於警察 Police 用複數

  • The police have arrested a friend of mine. (不是The Police has)
  • Do you think the police are well paid?
  • 然而警察隊伍裡面的一個人卻是 a police officer / a policewoman / a policeman (不是 a police)

 

(D) 我們不常用 person 的複數 (persons)。我們通常用 people (a plural word):

  • He’s a nice person. 但應是 They are nice people.
  • Many people don’t have enough to eat. ( 而不是doesn’t have)
  •  

(E) 我們說一筆錢,一段時間,一段距離,等,都是一件事物,所以我們用一個單數的動詞/vtb

  • Twenty thousand pounds (= it這筆) was stolen in the robbery 在搶劫中被偷 (不是were stolen).
  • Three years (= it) is a long time to be without a job. (不是 Three years are)
  • Six miles (這件事情) is a long way to walk everyday.

 

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